quarta-feira, 30 de março de 2016

The El Niño Rapid Response Campaign: Monitoring the 2015-2016 El Niño from the land, sea, and air.

This is a guest post by Dr. Amy Solomon and Dr. Gil Compo of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences of the University of Colorado-Boulder. Both scientists sit within the Physical Sciences Division, which took on a leading role in the El Niño Rapid Response Campaign. They excel at improving our process-based understanding of the models and developing reanalysis datasets, which are critical to understanding and predicting weather and climate.

The ongoing El Niño of 2015-2016 is a historically strong event, the likes of which is only seen once or twice during a scientific career. Not wanting to let this opportunity pass by, scientists from NOAA and NASA have embarked on an unprecedented and exciting mission to observe this El Niño like no other El Niño has been observed before! From January to March 2016, scientists have been collecting data in a notoriously data-sparse region of the Pacific via Gulfstream jets, high-tech unmanned aircraft, ship cruises, weather balloon launches, and instruments dropped right out of aircraft. This effort is known as the El Niño Rapid Response campaign.

Tracks of all 23 research flights with the NOAA Gulfstream-IV aircraft out of Honolulu, Hawaii during the El Niño Rapid Response campaign from January - March 2016. Research flights were meant to circle massive thunderstorm systems in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. An example GOES satellite image from February 25, 2016 is shown to give an example of the location and scale of the thunderstorms. Conditions varied daily. NOAA Climate.gov image based off image courtsey of Matt Newmann (CU/CIRES and NOAA/ESRL) and NASA.

The deluge that wasn’t

Why study this El Niño? As discussed in detail in previous blog entries, one significant way El Niño impacts the global climate is through changes in atmospheric wave forcing and large-scale circulations like the Walker Circulation and Hadley Circulation, which then shift the pathways taken by storms around the world. During the 1997-1998 El Niño, the North Pacific stormtrack was shifted southeastward, directing moisture-carrying storms toward California. This caused 13.68 inches of rain to fall in downtown Los Angeles in 1998—the wettest February since records began 130 years before.

There was, therefore, significant concern about the impact of the next big El Niño on California precipitation. By standard measures, the 2015-2016 El Niño has been tied with 1997-98 as the warmest El Niño in the instrumental record. However, only 0.79 inches of rainfall fell during February 2016 in downtown Los Angeles. To date, March 2016 rainfall totals are also significantly below average.

Read full article here.

domingo, 27 de março de 2016

Oh Buoy, What’s Happening with Sea-Level Rise?

When it comes to climate change, the science is in and the debate is over.

Natal - Brazil / Photo: Canindé Soares
But sometimes when you’re studying the science behind climate change, it’s easy to lose track of the story. Climate change isn’t just a hockey stick graph. It isn’t just global temperature projections or satellite records. Climate change is a story about humans, and it’s a daily reality felt by many.

    The headlines have been all about sea-level rise lately. For #ScienceSunday, let's set sail and look at the facts! pic.twitter.com/rg0xt1Ucux
    — Climate Reality (@ClimateReality) February 28, 2016

Every week, Climate Reality hosts a series on Twitter called #ScienceSunday, where we make the latest climate science simple, one tweet at a time. Recently, we broke down two new studies on sea-level rise – and what they mean for people – with help from our friends at Climate Central. If you missed it because you were taking it easy like Sunday morning, here’s a recap of what happened.
Today, sea levels are rising faster than at any time in the last 2,800 years.

    #ScienceSunday: Today, sea levels are rising faster than at any time in the last 2,800 years https://t.co/8Q6eDd6SoC pic.twitter.com/4m92CBlvwn
    — Climate Reality (@ClimateReality) February 28, 2016

One of the authors of the new study cited in this graphic, Professor Stefan Rahmstorf, said accelerated sea-level rise “was to be expected, since global warming inevitably leads to rising seas.” Here’s a quick break down of what he means:

Carbon pollution from fossil fuel burning and industry is at an all-time high, and both atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and global temperatures have increased dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Carbon pollution traps more and more heat in our atmosphere, and these warmer temperatures cause glaciers to melt and sea water to expand – leading to sea-level rise.

Sea levels are rising faster than at any time in almost 3,000 years – and the reason why is clear: human-caused climate change.
Sea-level rise is accelerating and worsening coastal flooding worldwide.

    #ScienceSunday: Sea-level rise is accelerating and worsening coastal flooding worldwide https://t.co/8Q6eDd6SoC pic.twitter.com/CLLfc84IzT
    — Climate Reality (@ClimateReality) February 28, 2016

Sea-level rise is happening at a shocking rate. According to NASA’s latest measurements, it’s rising by 3.41 mm per year globally. So there’s a little more water, what’s the big deal? Well, we’re already starting to see dangerous effects like major spikes in coastal flooding worldwide, and researchers have attributed more and more of this flooding to climate change.
There are human fingerprints on thousands of US coastal floods, according to these studies.

    #ScienceSunday: There are human fingerprints on thousands of US coastal floods. New study: https://t.co/Ahi6KBQJdS pic.twitter.com/F0hyU72uSM
    — Climate Reality (@ClimateReality) February 28, 2016

While a huge range of causes can contribute to sea-level rise, these researchers have found that human-caused climate change often tipped the balance in US coastal flooding events. For example, in Wilmington, North Carolina they estimate that there have been 795 days of coastal flooding since 1950 and an incredible 613 have been categorized as human-caused. That means over 75 percent of coastal flood days would not have happened without climate change, according to this study.
When we act on climate, we protect our cities from sea-level rise.

    #ScienceSunday: When we #ActOnClimate, we protect our cities from sea-level rise https://t.co/0UYn5J3eVz pic.twitter.com/GlPDAhNTLQ
    — Climate Reality (@ClimateReality) February 28, 2016

The United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that half of the world’s population lives within 60 kilometers (about 37 miles) of a coast – and three-quarters of all major cities are on a shoreline. If we continue to burn dirty fossil fuels at ever higher rates (“business as usual”), the world’s average temperature is expected to be 2 – 7°C higher than pre-industrial levels. As we mentioned earlier, higher temperatures mean higher sea levels creeping up on great cities from Boston to Bombay.

We took a huge step in the right direction to help mitigate rising sea levels last December. At the UN’s COP 21 climate conference in Paris, representatives from 195 countries across every corner of the world reached a landmark global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and keep global warming under 2°C.

Read in full here.

segunda-feira, 21 de março de 2016

#InternationalDayofForests Theme for 2016: Forests and water

This global celebration of forests provides a platform to raise awareness of the importance of all types of forests and of trees outside forests.
Forests cover one third of the Earth's land mass, performing vital functions around the world. Around 1.6 billion people - including more than 2,000 indigenous cultures - depend on forests for their livelihood.
Forests are the most biologically-diverse ecosystems on land, home to more than 80% of the terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects. They also provide shelter, jobs and security for forest-dependent communities.
Yet despite all of these priceless ecological, economic, social and health benefits, global deforestation continues at an alarming rate - 13 million hectares of forest are destroyed annually. Deforestation accounts for 12 to 20 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.

Celebrating forests and water

Every year on the International Day of Forests we celebrate the ways in which forests and trees sustain and protect us. This year we are raising awareness of how forests are key to the planet’s supply of freshwater, which is essential for life.

A resident of the National Tapajos Forest collects wild foliage for preparing a meal.
A resident of the National Tapajos Forest collects wild foliage for preparing a meal. UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe


Did you know?

  • Forested watersheds and wetlands supply 75 percent of the world’s accessible freshwater
  • About one-third of the world’s largest cities obtain a significant proportion of their drinking water directly from forested protected areas
  • Nearly 80 percent of the world’s population – 8 out of 10 people - is exposed to high levels of threat to water security
  • Improved water resource management can show considerable economic gains
  • Forests act as natural water filters
  • Climate change is altering forests role in water flows and the availability of water resources
  • Forests have a crucial role in building and strengthening resilience

Special Event

The theme of the 2016 International Day of Forests is “forests and water”. To mark the Day, a joint celebration of the International Day of Forests and World Water Day will be held on Monday, 21 March 2016 (10:00 to 13:00) in the Economic and Social Council Chamber.
The event entitled “Forests and Water | Sustain Life and Livelihoods” will raise awareness of the interconnections between forests and water and their contributions to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The UNFF Secretariat and UN-Water are organizing the event, in collaboration with the Government of Sweden.
2016 International Day of Forests Program
More information on the Day is available at the UN Forum on Forests.

From http://www.un.org/en/events/forestsday/

terça-feira, 15 de março de 2016

UN Water Day 2016: The power of water and jobs

On World Water Day, people everywhere show that they care and that they have the power to make a difference. They get inspired by information and use it to take action and change things. This year many will focus on the power that water and jobs have to transform people’s lives. Nearly all jobs are related to water and those that ensure its safe delivery. But today, millions of people who work in water are often not recognized or even protected by basic labour rights. This needs to change. 
Read More

Watch the World Water Day 2016 trailer  @ http://www.unwater.org/worldwaterday/

sexta-feira, 4 de março de 2016

ANA contrata consultor para fazer levantamento de acordos internacionais sobre mudanças climáticas

A Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) está com uma seleção aberta para contratação de consultor individual para realizar levantamento dos encaminhamentos, debates e compromissos das edições mais recentes da Conferência das Partes (COP) da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre mudanças climáticas. Os interessados devem enviar currículo para projeto.bra15001@ana.gov.br até 7 de março com o campo de assunto preenchido da seguinte forma “Processo Seletivo Edital 02/2016”.
Segundo o edital, o profissional a ser contratado deverá ter mestrado ou doutorado em qualquer área de formação, além de experiência mínima comprovada de dez anos em duas das seguintes áreas: gestão de recursos hídricos, mudanças climáticas, planejamento público ou desenvolvimento sustentável. Além disso, o consultor deve ser fluente em inglês e ter experiência em negociações entre países ou em fóruns internacionais reconhecidos nos temas de mudanças climáticas, recursos hídricos e desenvolvimento sustentável. O contratado poderá desenvolver as atividades em seu próprio escritório. Também estão previstas reuniões na sede da ANA, em Brasília, ou por teleconferência. O contrato terá duração de 120 dias.
Uma das atividades a ser realizada é o levantamento bibliográfico e dos demais registros sobre os resultados e compromissos definidos nas edições mais recentes da COP da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre mudanças climáticas e sobre o posicionamento do Brasil em relação à mitigação, adaptação e vulnerabilidades, financiamento, entre outros. Além disso, o consultor deverá fazer levantamento semelhante sobre a abordagem dos resultados e compromissos definidos nas Conferências das Partes nos principais eventos internacionais relativos à água.
O consultor também deverá apoiar a organização da oficina de trabalho com especialistas em negociações ou compromissos internacionais de clima, além de especialistas em gestão de recursos hídricos, para coletar percepções e orientações sobre como a gestão da água e as iniciativas de adaptação às mudanças climáticas podem se apropriar da agenda dos compromissos climáticos internacionais.
Além disso, o contratado terá que avaliar as consequências de acordos, compromissos e orientações internacionais relativas às mudanças climáticas sobre a gestão de recursos hídricos no Brasil e sobre os esforços nacionais para adaptação às mudanças do clima. Também caberá ao consultor apontar as medidas de preparação, as formas de cooperação do setor de recursos hídricos para o alcance dos compromissos firmados e as principais articulações necessárias para que tais compromissos sejam efetivados.
Em conformidade com o Decreto nº 5.151, de 22 de julho de 2004, esta contratação será realizada por meio de processo seletivo simplificado. É vedada a contratação, a qualquer título, de servidores ativos da Administração Pública Federal, Estadual, do Distrito Federal ou Municipal, direta ou indireta, bem como de empregados de suas subsidiárias e controladas, no âmbito dos projetos de cooperação técnica internacional.


quarta-feira, 2 de março de 2016

FAPESP e NERC anunciam oportunidade de financiamento

Agência FAPESP – A FAPESP e o Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), um dos Conselhos de Pesquisa britânicos, anunciam a abertura de uma oportunidade de financiamento a projetos colaborativos entre pesquisadores do Reino Unido e do Estado de São Paulo.
O foco da colaboração está em pesquisas sobre a Ciência do Sistema Terrestre e Mudanças Ambientais Globais.
Podem participar da chamada, no Estado de São Paulo, pesquisadores principais elegíveis para financiamento da FAPESP que demonstrem excelência em um ou mais dos seguintes pontos:
1) Desenvolver pesquisa de elevado impacto e com resultados direcionados a áreas de interesse do Programa FAPESP de Pesquisa sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais (PFPMCG) ou do Programa FAPESP de Pesquisas em Caracterização, Conservação, Restauração e Uso Sustentável da Biodiversidade (BIOTA);
2) Realização de atividades que posicionem a colaboração internacional no centro de sua abordagem, que adicionem valor à capacidade de pesquisa brasileira e que promovam resultados que não poderiam ser obtidos isoladamente por pesquisadores em São Paulo;
3) Realização de atividades com resultados duradouros que promovam benefícios além do período dos auxílios oferecidos pela FAPESP e pelo NERC.
A FAPESP está especialmente interessada em propostas em que o foco geográfico da colaboração esteja na América do Sul e nos oceanos adjacentes, particularmente nas regiões Amazônica e do Atlântico Sul.
Na chamada, há duas opções de financiamento. Na primeira, denominada Pump Priming Award, pesquisadores interessados no Estado de São Paulo podem submeter propostas solicitando até o equivalente a £ 20 mil por proposta de até dois anos de duração.
Na opção Pump Priming Plus Awards podem ser submetidas propostas de até £ 30 mil e até três anos de duração, contanto que o pesquisador responsável solicite, como parte do projeto, a organização de pelo menos um workshop internacional a ser realizado no Estado de São Paulo.
Podem submeter propostas pesquisadores responsáveis por Auxílios à Pesquisa FAPESP vigentes, nas modalidades Auxílio à Pesquisa Regular, Projeto Temático, Jovens Pesquisadores em Centros Emergentes, Centros de Pesquisa, Inovação e Difusão (CEPID), Programa de Melhoria do Ensino Público, Programa de Pesquisa em Políticas Públicas e Programa de Apoio à Pesquisa em Parceria para Inovação Tecnológica (PITE). Pesquisadores Principais de Projetos Temáticos, CEPIDs e PITEs vigentes também podem submeter propostas.
Propostas serão recebidas até o dia 19 de maio de 2016, às 16 horas (hora em Londres).
A chamada de propostas (em inglês) está publicada em: www.fapesp.br/10080